Calculations for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
There are some 3,000,000,000 base pairs making up human genomic DNA within a haploid cell. If that DNA is isolated from such a cell, it will weigh approximately 0.0000000000035 g. To amplify a specific segment of that purified DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 0.00000000001 moles of each of two primers can be added to a reaction that can produce, following some 30 cycles of PCR, over 1,000,000,000 copies of the target gene.
On a day-to-day basis, molecular biologists work with extremes of numbers far outside the experience of conventional life. To allow them to more easily cope with calculations involving extraordinary values, two shorthand methods have been adopted that bring both enormous and infinitesimal quantities back into the realm of manageability. These methods use scientific notation and metric prefixes. They require the use of exponents and an understanding of significant digits.
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