Carl T. Bergstrom and Jevin West
the world is awash with bullshit, and we’re drowning in it. Politicians are unconstrained by facts. Science is
conducted by press release. Silicon Valley startups elevate bullshit to high art. Colleges and universities reward bullshit over analytic thought. The majority of administrative activity seems to be little more than a sophisticated exercise in the combinatorial reassembly of bullshit. Advertisers wink conspiratorially and invite us to join them in seeing through all the bullshit. We wink back—but in doing so drop our guard and fall for the second-order bullshit they are shoveling at us. Bullshit pollutes our world by misleading people about specific issues, and it undermines our ability to trust information in general. However modest, this book is our attempt to fight back.